After the object which will be projected on is chosen or created, a virtual replica of the entire physical set up needs to be created. First, one must choose the images or video they wish to project. Then, the virtual model of the projection surface is created within on the computer using special programs. The next step is defined as 'masking', which means using opacity templates to actually 'mask' the exact shapes and positions of the different elements of the building or space of projection. Coordinates need to be defined for where the object is placed in relation to the projector. Finally, the xyz orientation, position and lens specification of the projector add to the virtual scene. Adjustments are commonly needed by manually tweaking either the physical or virtual scene for best results. Large projectors with up to 20,000 lumens will be needed for large-scale projections such as on city skyscrapers. Otherwise, for smaller productions, a projector with a basic 5600 lumens will work. All projectors should be used with a wide angle lens, as they will produce the best results. Video mapping software such as MadMapper and VPT 6.0 are all downloadable for use in projects like these. Since this technique is becoming much more mainstream and used in advertising, companies.